What is the mechanism for ensuring consensus in Ripple?

Ripple does not use blockchain technology. Transactions on the network are confirmed through a consensus-building process known as the Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA).

As part of this process, most servers, also called nodes, which are included in the list of trusted or unique nodes (Unique Node List), must agree that the transaction is valid, and there are enough funds on the sender's account for its implementation. RPCA is part of the Ripple Transaction Protocol (RTXP) payment protocol, developed in 2012 by OpenCoin & CoinJoin.

In February 2018, Ripple published two new technical documents describing the consensus algorithm that underlies the XRP token, and ways to achieve greater diversification of connections of each node in the network.

The first document, called Analysis of the XRP Ledger Consensus Protocol, contains proof that within the planned stages of further network decentralization, this algorithm ensures the security and viability of the network, including the absence of forks.

The second white paper gives an idea of Cobalt – a fundamentally new asynchronous consensus algorithm aimed at improving the existing XRP protocol by creating more flexibility when creating a unique list of nodes.